Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a type of oxygen reduction products monoelectronic, has a high chemical activity of O2. Although ROS pose a potential risk to all organisms through induced oxidative stress, which is inseparable from the role of ROS in the development of the individual can not be ignored. Among them, the role of ROS in the model Arabidopsis thaliana plants deeply studied. Mounting evidence indicates that ROS is important for the development of roots and root hairs. In this review, we provide an updated perspective on the progress of the latest research related to the role of ROS in the regulation of the right of maintenance of stem roots and differentiation of cells, redox regulation of the cell cycle, and the initiation of the hair roots during root growth. Among the various types of ROS, O2 • – and H2O2 has been studied extensively, and they show a different gradient distribution in the roots. The concentration of O2 • – decreased along the gradient of the meristem into the transition zone and H2O2 concentration decreased along the gradient of differentiation zone to zone of elongation. This gradient is governed by the peroxidase, which is modulated by UPBEAT1 (UPB1) transcription factors. In addition, several transcription factors, such as app1, ABO8, PHB3, and RITF1, which is involved in signaling pathways brassinolide, gathered as a signal to regulate ROS roots stem cell maintenance. Furthermore, superoxide anion (O 2 • -) resulting from oxidation in mitochondria, ROS generated during metabolism plasmid, H2O2 is produced in apoplasts, and catalysis respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH) in cell membranes. Furthermore, ROS can act as a signal to regulate the redox status, which regulate the expression of cell-cycle component CYC2, 3, CYCB1, 1, and associated proteins retinoblastoma-, thereby controlling the development of cell-cycle. At the root maturation zone, epidermal cells located at position H cells appeared to form hair cells, and plant hormones such as auxin and ethylene regulates the formation of hair follicles through ROS. In addition, the accumulation of ROS can affect hormone signal transduction and vice versa. Data on the relationship between nutrient stress and ROS signaling in the development of hair follicles is rare. However, the fact that ROBHC / RHD2 or RHD6 is specifically expressed in cells and hair follicles caused by nutrients, may explain the relationship. Future studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of hair roots development through the interaction of ROS with signaling hormones and nutritional components.
SYPL1 Inhibits Apoptosis in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma via Eradication of ROS-induced ERK activation
Synaptophysin-like 1 (SYPL1) is associated protein neuroendokrin-. SYPL1 role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclarified. Here, after analyzing five datasets (GSE15471, GSE16515, GSE28735, TCGA and PACA-AU) and 78 patients with PDAC from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, we show that SYPL1 is regulated in PDAC and that high levels SYPL1 indicated poor prognosis , bioinformatics analysis implied that SYPL1 associated with cell proliferation and cell death. To validate these findings, gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were carried out, and we found that SYPL1 promoted cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and that it protected the cells from apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation is responsible for the ongoing cell death resulting from the knockdown of SYPL1. In addition, bioinformatics analysis showed that expression of SYPL1 positively correlated with antioxidant activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in cells with SYPL1 knockdown and vice versa. ROS-regulated lead to activation of ERK and cell death. These results indicate that SYPL1 plays an important role in PDAC and promote cancer cell survival by pressing the ROS-induced activation of ERK.
hemoglobin oxygenation state defines the dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity
This study focuses on assessing the potential impact of changes in hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation in the state of water in the hydration shell as a contribution to the deformability of red blood cells. Microwave Dielectric Spectroscopy (MDS) is used to monitor changes in the interaction between water molecules and hemoglobin, the number of water molecules in a protein shell hydration, and water dynamics pre-proteins in response to a transition of Hb of the tense (T) to relaxed (R) countries, and otherwise. A measurement of hemoglobin solutions of different concentrations (5 g / dl-30 g / dl) phosphate-buffered saline buffer. Cole-cole main water relaxation peak parameters in terms of the interaction of water molecules (dipole-dipole / dipole ion) during oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle is used to analyze the data obtained. Mobility of water represented by α as a function of τ-ln differ dramatically between R (oxygen) state and T (deoxygenated) state Hb at physiologically relevant concentrations (30 g / dl-35 g / dl or 4.5 MM 5, 5 mM).Product not found
At this concentration, the hemoglobin oxygen characterized by a much lower mobility of water in the hydration shell, measured as an increase in relaxation time, compared with deoxyhemoglobin. These changes indicate an increase in the viscosity of red blood cell cytosol when cells of oxygen and decreases the viscosity of the deoxygenation. Information provided by MDS on the water situation intraerythrocytic intact red blood cells reflects the interaction with all the components of the cytosol, make this measurement a strong predictor of changes in the rheological properties of red blood cells, regardless of the cause.